The following information provides a limited sampling of how ‘gender identity’ (and related terms) is viewed in various jurisdictions.
Glossary of Gender
This glossary was compiled by Transgender Nation (San Francisco, California). The organization is a diverse group of transgendered and non-transgendered people united “in anger” and resolved to directly empower all transgendered people by direct political action.
assigned gender at birth - the gender one is considered to be at birth, due to the presence of whatever external sex organs. Once this determination is made, it becomes a label used for raising the child in either one gender image or the other.
(Extracts from CHRR)
Discriminatory auto insurance rates allowed for bona fide reasons
Zurich Insurance Co. v. Ontario (Human Rights Comm.)
The majority of the Supreme Court of Canada finds that Zurich Insurance did not discriminate against Michael Bates contrary to the Ontario Human Rights Code by charging him higher premiums for automobile insurance because of his age, sex, and marital status.
The Code states that it is public policy in Ontario to recognize the inherent dignity and worth of every person and to provide for equal rights and opportunities without discrimination. The provisions of the Code are aimed at creating a climate of understanding and mutual respect for the dignity and worth of each person, so that each person feels a part of the community and feels able to contribute to the community.
4. Discrimination based on sexual orientation
The Code provides that every person has the right to be treated equally without discrimination because of sexual orientation. The purpose of anti-discrimination laws is to prevent the violation of human dignity and freedom through the imposition of disadvantage, stereotyping or political or social prejudice.
Session 1 - Trends and Current Issues for Human Rights Commissions
Moderator: Pearl Eliadis
Pearl Eliadis introduced the topic by identifying the following major themes:
This Report is intended to be a broad examination of all issues that may have an impact on the dignity and worth of older adults and that may affect the enjoyment of equal rights and opportunities.
During the consultation, the Commission heard repeatedly about ageism and its effects. Ageism can give rise to individual acts of discrimination, but can also have an impact on a wider scale by influencing policies, programs and legislation that affect broad sectors of society. For the purposes of this Report, the term ‘ageism’ refers to two types of behaviour that have a negative effect on older persons. The first involves the social construction of age, including incorrect assumptions and stereotypes about older persons.
The Commission recognizes that persons may experience disadvantage in unique ways based on the intersection of age with other aspects of their identity. During the consultations, the Commission heard about certain groups of older persons who face particular barriers arising from the intersection of age with gender, disability, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, religion, culture and language.
“Women particularly suffer because of past customs, practices and traditions.” (Canadian Pensioners Concerned)
Employment is fundamental to ensuring equal participation and equal opportunity in society. It has a direct bearing on a person’s economic status while the person is in the workforce and afterwards. Therefore, any examination of age discrimination in employment must consider the effects of practices and policies on the person while they are working as well as after they have retired. It must also consider the effect on society as a whole.