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  1. 3. The intersection of age with other grounds of discrimination

    From: Policy on discrimination against older people because of age

    The experience of age discrimination may differ based on other components of a person’s identity. For example, certain groups of older persons may experience unique barriers as a result of the intersection of age with gender, disability, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, religion, culture and language. Please see Time for Action for a more detailed discussion of “age and intersectionality” and the particular barriers faced by certain groups.

  2. 4. Bias and prejudice

    From: Policy on preventing discrimination because of gender identity and gender expression

    Trans people and other gender non-conforming individuals are often judged by their physical appearance for not fitting and conforming to stereotypical norms about what it means to be a “man” or “woman.” They experience stigmatization, prejudice, bias and fear on a daily basis. While some may see trans people as inferior, others may lack awareness and understanding about what it means to be trans.

  3. 4. Creed

    From: Policy on preventing discrimination based on creed

    Policy framework

    Creed is a prohibited ground of discrimination under the Ontario Human Rights Code. The fact that Ontario adopted the term creed (or "la croyance" in French) in its human rights legislation, and not another term (such as religion, religious belief or religious creed as used in other Canadian human rights statutes), is significant when interpreting its meaning. It suggests that creed may have a meaning that is distinct from these other closely related terms.[65]  

  4. 4. FGM in Canada

    From: Policy on female genital mutilation (FGM)

    For some time now, Canada has experienced immigrant and refugee movements from countries in which FGM is commonly practised. In Toronto, community groups have estimated that there are 70,000 immigrants and refugees from Somalia and 10,000 from Nigeria, countries in which FGM is commonly practised.[22] As already noted, because of the nature of FGM, reliable statistics on the incidence of its practice are not available.

  5. 4. Forms of discrimination based on pregnancy and breastfeeding

    From: Policy on preventing discrimination because of pregnancy and breastfeeding

    The Code provides that every person has the right to be treated equally without discrimination because of pregnancy in the social areas of employment; housing accommodation; services, goods and facilities; contracts; and membership in unions, trade and professional associations. The purpose of human rights laws is to prevent the violation of human dignity by removing barriers and making sure that every person has equal opportunity to live his or her own life without being hindered by discrimination.

  6. 4. Intersecting grounds

    From: Policy on ableism and discrimination based on disability

    Discrimination may be unique or distinct when it occurs based on two or more Code grounds. Such discrimination is said to be “intersectional.” The concept of intersectional discrimination recognizes that people’s lives involve multiple interrelated identities, and that marginalization and exclusion based on Code grounds may exist because of how these identities intersect.

  7. 4. Legal responsibility for human rights at work

    From: Human Rights at Work 2008 - Third Edition

    a) Employers

    Employers have the primary obligation to make sure their workplace is free from discrimination and harassment. Employers are expected to proactively provide a workplace where human rights are respected and employees afforded equal opportunities. This includes working with unions to negotiate collective agreements that are consistent with the Code.

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